First stage

The first stage of alcoholism is characterized primarily by mental dependence the beginning of the formation of physical dependence. A person begins to drink alcohol not “for the company” or “on occasion” but in order to feel the action change his state and when there is no opportunity to drink he often feels discomfort. Signs of the first stage of alcoholism are the emergence of craving for alcohol the formation of resistance to alcohol (tolerance) and a mild form of hangover (withdrawal) syndrome the emergence of the need to get drunk.

At this stage of alcoholism mental dependence is the leading manifestation of alcoholism but already at this time disturbances in the functioning of some systems and organs are possible. Since the physical craving for alcohol at the first stage of alcoholism is not yet fully formed.

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2nd. Stage

In the 2nd stage of alcoholism the painful craving for alcohol increases. This is accompanied by growing mental changes all the interests of a person are concentrated on alcohol egocentrism (extreme egoism) manifests itself a sense of duty dulls a person becomes irresponsible and careless he hardly perceives and expresses emotions. There is a loss of a sense of proportion in relation to the drink. After taking high doses memory loss occurs. Fatigue and unreasonable mood swings are common. Decreased working capacity.

A characteristic feature of the second stage of alcoholism is the final formation of withdrawal symptoms (hangover). In addition in the second stage, alcoholism continues and reaches a maximum resistance to alcohol. Further destruction of the organism occurs. In many patients at this stage doctors observe an enlargement of the liver which later turns into cirrhosis from the gastrointestinal tract – gastritis and pancreatitis.

Also in the 2nd stage of alcoholism long-term treatment will already be required. Most often we can talk not about the complete cure but about long-term remission (a period of abstinence from alcohol). At stage 2 “A” of alcoholism only with persistent treatment following all the recommendations of a psychotherapist provided that the person fully understands his problem and takes responsibility for the treatment it is possible to reverse the disease and become a moderate drinker. A patient with chronic alcoholism at stage 2 “B” naturally if the person himself is interested in treatment and wants to be always in shape he will have to go to the doctors about once every 2 – 3 years in order to carry out appropriate treatment receive moral and psychological support and strengthen faith into their own strength.

3rd. Stage

In the 3rd. stage of alcoholism the signs of physical decrepitude, mental exhaustion and a drop in resistance to alcohol increase. Loss of memory occurs even when taking small doses of alcohol. At the same time both the nature of intoxication and the nature of the craving for alcohol change which from a way of changing the state turns into a means of maintaining life.

It is very problematic to talk about the treatment of the third stage of the disease. First of all because by this time a large number of cells have already died in the body the disintegration of the personality begins the activity of the central nervous system metabolism is very significantly disrupted internal organs are affected. In addition at this stage, a person has difficulty remembering himself in a different state. He forgets the experience of a sober life. But even in such a state, it is impossible to “put an end” on a person. As long as a person is alive he always has a chance for a cure.

Complex ​drug addiction treatment in a hospital. Putting the addict in a rehabilitation center is the only way to achieve good therapy results.

A patient with drug addiction is isolated from the negatively influencing environment. Inpatient treatment minimizes the likelihood of relapse, which is very important in the early stages of recovery.

In the hospital, a drug addict patient is under the round-the-clock supervision of a narcologist, psychotherapist, and doctors of other specialties.

A comprehensive drug addiction recovery course consists of several stages, each of which is very important for a sustainable result:

Detoxification Of The Body

When a person is in an inadequate state, experiences physical suffering, he is unable to make sound decisions. Detoxification contributes to a quick and safe clearance of the drug from the body, the return of sobriety, and normal well-being.

Individual Work With A Psychotherapist

An experienced professional knows how to select the right arguments. In a personal conversation, in most cases, it is possible to convince the patient to undergo treatment for drug addiction voluntarily.

Complex Therapy Using Drug Addiction Treatment Methods

A person gets rid of physiological dependence. His health is restored, as far as possible.

Rehabilitation Of Addicts After Drugs

To cure a drug addict completely is to teach him to live in sobriety in the real world. Psychological assistance from specialized psychologists, work in groups is aimed at changing the harmful scenarios of the patient’s behavior in critical situations, providing effective tools to overcome stress and problems without using drugs, and finding joy while staying sober. And the main thing is to say a firm no to drugs.

Working With Codependents

After a course of drug addiction treatment, a person changes, but the behavior and reactions of his close environment usually do not. Group activities with codependents help to establish proper communication and support on the path to the complete recovery of the addict.

A Drug-Free Life Is Possible

Choose a clinic where drug addiction is treated with high efficiency. It is possible to forcibly deliver for treatment with the subsequent receipt of the patient’s voluntary consent.

Drug Addiction Treatment

Before proceeding to eradicate the psychological cause of addiction, the body must be detoxified. This is a complex process that must be supervised by appropriately qualified medical personnel. With further treatment of drug addiction without isolation from the harmful environment, it is very difficult for the patient to resist the irresistible urge to receive a dose. Therefore, we strongly recommend that the addict be admitted to a hospital. In such conditions, it is much easier to go through this difficult path and get a stable remission.

In a biological sense, alcoholism is an incurable disease. This means that there is no medicine that will restore the patient’s ability to control alcohol consumption.

An alcoholic patient is doomed either to a progressive deterioration in health and social status or to complete sobriety.

Treatment of a patient with alcoholism is not similar to the treatment of a patient with pneumonia and consists of the fact that a person learns to live without drinking alcohol at all.

Complete treatment of a patient with alcoholism is a complex multifactorial process. Various methods are used to treat alcohol dependence drug therapy, psychotherapy, and social rehabilitation.

Treatment of the patient begins with stopping drinking and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (hangover).

Treatment Of Alcoholism

If the course of alcoholism is complicated by convulsive syndrome or psychosis, treatment should be carried out in the various Psychiatric hospitals.


Stopping alcohol consumption is mandatory, but not the main goal of treatment. All patients under the influence of life circumstances periodically “quit drinking” and lead a sober lifestyle for some time. The patient’s problem is not stopping drinking (although many experiences this stopping painfully). The problem of the patient and the goal of this treatment is to preserve and maintain sobriety, and such sobriety so that the patient does not feel defective, inferior. Sobriety must have a qualitative attraction for the patient.

After completion of drug recovery treatment. psychologists, psychotherapists, and also specially trained paraspecialists should be included in helping a patient with alcoholism. An important role in this work is played by the Society of Alcoholics Anonymous (a voluntary association of alcoholics who want to achieve sustainable sobriety).

Short-term consequences which depend on the blood alcohol level

Alcohol is a psychoactive product. It changes consciousness and perceptions, and therefore feelings and behaviors. The immediate effects depend mainly on the blood alcohol level.

An increased risk of road accident

Even if the person does not realize it, the effects of alcohol start to appear from the first drink. Alcohol increases reaction time. It decreases reflexes, alertness and resistance to fatigue. It also disrupts vision, the estimation of distances and the coordination of movements. In addition, its disinhibiting effect leads one to underestimate the danger and thus to take risks: “forgetting” to buckle up or wear a helmet, excessive speed, and so on.

The risk of being responsible for a fatal traffic accident is multiplied by 8 in the event of alcohol consumption. This risk increases very rapidly depending on the alcohol level in the blood: it is multiplied by 6 for a rate between 0.5 and 0.8 g / l, and by 40 for a rate greater than 2 g / l.

An increase in psychosocial risks

  • self-aggression
  • hetero-aggression, including domestic violence
  • unprotected and/or unwanted sex

Medium and long term consequences even with low consumption

Even without being a very heavy consumer or alcohol-dependent, alcohol consumption has an influence on the development of many pathologies: cancer, cardiovascular and digestive diseases, diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders … Alcohol can also be at the origin of more banal difficulties like fatigue, too high blood pressure, sleep disorders, memory or concentration problems, etc.


Alcohol is a proven carcinogen (group 1) classified as such since 1988 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

The risk of developing certain cancers increases from a daily glass of alcohol regardless of the alcohol consumed whether it is wine, beer or hard liquor. Thus, 19% of cancers attributable to alcohol develop in men who drink less than 40g of alcohol per day and in women who consume less than 20g of alcohol per day.

In France in 2015, 8% of cancers were attributable to alcohol, or around 28,000 cancers. It is the second cause of preventable cancer after tobacco. This represents approximately 28,000 cancers attributable to alcohol in France, out of the 352,000 new cases of cancer affecting adults over 30 years of age each year.

Seven cancer sites have a proven link with alcohol consumption: cancers of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum  and breast

Cardiovascular disorders

Regular alcohol consumption raises blood pressure and increases the risk of hypertension.

The effect of alcohol on blood pressure is dose dependent, but the risk of high blood pressure  increases differently in men and women:

in men: Any alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure.

in women: the risk is increased for consuming more than 30 g of alcohol per day.

It also promotes the risk of cerebrovascular accidents  (hemorrhagic stroke) and atrial fibrillation (increased risk of occurrence from 10g of alcohol per day in men and 30g of alcohol per day in women).


There is a dose dependent effect between alcohol consumption and cirrhosis. At the origin of progressive destruction of hepatic cells replaced by fibrous tissue, cirrhosis is significantly increased after consumption:

In women from 24 to 36g of alcohol per day

In men from 36 to 48g of alcohol per day

Mortality from cirrhosis is significantly increased for any alcohol consumption in women and from consumption of 12 to 24g of alcohol per day in men.

Effects on the brain

In addition to disturbances in attention, concentration, memory, abstraction capacities and executive functions, chronic alcohol intoxication can be the cause of Korsakoff syndrome, characterized by massive impairment and irreversible memory, a tendency to fabulation to compensate for memory loss, mood disorders, etc.

The addiction

When addiction sets in, the harmful consequences are numerous and affect all spheres of the drinker’s life. The state of health deteriorates both physically and psychologically. Relationships with relatives are disrupted and professional life can also be affected.

Alcohol dependence is particularly toxic on the nervous system and causes many disorders:

  • encephalopathies, resulting from vitamin deficiencies
  • cognitive disorders, such as dementia
  • epileptic seizures
  • neuropathies

Content of a standard drink in pure alcohol

These equivalences are based on the standard alcohol levels contained in alcoholic beverages. Thus, the capacities of standard glasses are different depending on the degree of alcohol more or less highly of the alcoholic drink.

When it is to know about laparoscopic surgery instruments, these include the pencil like instruments that have been designed to fit through the small cuts. These small cuts are given at the abdominal wall rather than the larger incisions that are required during the surgeries and operations.

These laparoscopic instruments are used in addition to the laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin telescope that has been fitted with a source of cold light along with a video camera. Inert gases such as carbon dioxide are used in order to inflate the abdominal region. It results in increasing the distance between the abdominal walls and the organs offering a larger field to operate. Common instruments meant for laparoscopic surgery include the laparoscope, trocar, needle driver for suturing, surgical mesh, and bowel grasper.

Laparoscope: These are the oldest instruments that are used by practitioners since older times. Modern laparoscopes are used for minimally invasive procedures with simple tubes and then developed in to lenses for the magnified visions. These days these scopes are more likely to be apparatus that has multiple parts. These include the viewing device, CCD camera, lens cleaner, and an energy supply device.

Trocar: It is shaped like a pen and possesses a triangular point. They are usually placed inside the hollow cannulas and inside the body, cavities to facilitate the draining fluids.

Needle driver: It is used by laparoscopic surgeons to hold the suturing needles while closing the wounds. It has three parts the jaws, the handles, and the joints. It is classified on the shape of the jaw.

Surgical mesh: It is an implantable device serving as scaffolding for the natural tissues to grow in to the area reinforcing it. However, it is the tissue itself that is responsible for repair.

Bowel grasper: It is used when there is minimal invasive bowel surgery. They are maneuvered through incisions that are no larger than 5mm. They enable the surgeons to grasp and then manipulate abdominal tissues in a precise manner.

If you are looking forward to getting in contact with reliable laparoscopic instruments manufacturers then Gerati is one such product manufacturer. You may access their official site i.e. for more details. They will serve to be among the perfect laparoscopic instruments manufacturers.

Gerati is widely becoming one of the most user-friendly sources of the basic laparoscopic instruments new York in the surgical instruments industry. Our range of these instruments includes the specula-designed instruments, deluxe line as well as a modular line of lap instruments. All of those are capable of disassembled for cleaning and sterilization purposes.

We excel in offering high-quality basic laparoscopic instruments new York in a range of single as well as double action jaw options. All of these instruments are known to offer a user-friendly experience for the surgeons at their best.

Features and benefits of the Yohan graspers:

Some of the salient features of Yohan graspers are as follows:

  • The ergonomic handle of the grasper offers comfort for the surgeons
  • Finger fatigue is prevented with the help of large finger rings
  • For precise control, the grasper has been equipped with 360-degree fingertip rotation
  • It has been insulated to enhance the safety of the surgeons

The field of laparoscopic surgical instruments has witnessed many advancements over the years. Surgical instruments can get highly contagious if they are not properly sterilized by the doctors. Sometimes, even after sterilizing the instrument some of the residues are left-over which can be harmful to the patients for catch infections and diseases. It is because of this reason surgeons and doctors now prefer to use disposable surgical instruments.

Gerati Aroport5 disposable trocar is innovatively designed by Gerati Healthcare Pvt Ltd to ensure infection free laparoscopic surgical procedures. You don’t have to clean and sterilize the instrument again and again. Simply use it once and throw it away.

Improper cleaning of instruments leads to infections and harmful diseases. Gerati Aroport5 disposable trocar makes it convenient and easy for surgeons to reduce the risk of infections. It is constructed with a sharp end and metal shaft. The diameter of the trocar is 5mm and the length is 10cm. It can easily be hand-held. It is engineered to provide optimal surgical performance to surgeons and doctors all over the world.



Disposable trocars for laparoscopic surgical procedures are available in several shapes and sizes. they’re laparoscopic surgical instruments that accompany different measurements of diameter and length. Trocars allow surgeons to perform minimally invasive surgery without the insertion of too many surgical instruments. They act as a port for surgeons to provide a secure opening to insert laparoscopic instruments in a human body.

GeratiAroport 10 disposable trocar is specially designed keeping in mind the convenience of the surgeons and the security and safety of the patient. It is easy to handle for the surgeon and less traumatic for the patient. GeratiAroport 10 disposable trocar dimensions are 10mmX10cm. It has a sharp end and a metal shaft. If you are a surgeon who is looking for maximum transparency and accuracy, this trocar provides leak-free instrument exchange and makes it easy for you to perform the surgery. You get an uninterrupted visualization which is needed to do your job without any hassle.

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical process that requires the use of delicate and precise instruments. To increase efficiency and productivity while performing laparoscopic procedures it is important to have high-quality instruments in the operation theatre. Surgeons and doctors want the best for their patients, therefore they ensure that they choose the best-quality instruments.

Electrodes come in different sizes and shapes. They are important laparoscopic instruments that make the process convenient and easier. These delicate instruments are designed to have the optimal tissue piercing. They help surgeons to create cuts for the treatment of pain. Gerati L-hook Electrode monopolar single use is engineered for the use of carrying out successful laparoscopic surgeries. They are disposable and come in a box of 10 pieces. The dis possibility of the L-hook electrode monopolar single use ensures that the patient is safe and secure from harmful infectious diseases which are usually caused by misuse of reusable electrodes.

Laparoscopic instruments are important tools to carry out different laparoscopic procedures but they are expensive. You cannot replace and repair them frequently. Therefore, it is important for you to properly clean and sterilize them to increase their efficiency and longevity. Reusable instruments are highly cost-effective and save money and time.

Although with the advancement in technology, we have disposable trocars available in the market, yet the demand for reusable trocars is also there. Reusable trocars are versatile and flexible. You don’t have to throw them away and increase waste after every use. They are a great way of avoiding expenses for disposable instruments.

Gerati G-Port 10 is a reusable trocar that is specially engineered for trained and professional surgeons to carry out the surgery without much hassle. It comes with a magnetic valve and allows easy insertion of instruments. The dimensions of the Gerati G-Port 10 reusable trocar are 10mmX10cm. Buy the best reusable trocar to make the process of surgery less traumatic.